Artikel Bahasa Inggris Hukum


Pancasila is the ideology of the Republic of Indonesia, and the pearls of wisdom contained in it should be fully implemented.

An Indonesian is a believer of the six major religions in the country: Islam, Protestant, Catholic, Buddha, Hindu, and Konghuchu, for the first principle of Pancasila is ‘Belief in God Almighty.’

Indonesia consists of more than 300 ethnic groups, but there is a harmonious existence among these different groups.

Our motto is “Bhinneka Tunggal Ika” or the English equivalent is “Unity in Diversity.”

Many Indonesian undertake humanitarian activities, for the second principle of Pancasila is “Just and Civilized humanitarianism.”

Indonesians do not believe in the doctrine of communism, nor does the State recognize the existence of the party in the country.

The third principle of Pancasila is “The Unity of Indonesia” and this principle stresses the feelings of solidarity and being one nation in the minds of the people.

Indonesians reach a decision through consultation and consensus, for the fourth principle of Pancasila is “Democracy based on Consultation and Consensus.”

The fifth principle of Pancasila is “Social Justice,” yet many Indonesian still live in poverty.

Many forces have tried to destroy Pancasila as the basic ideology of the country, but these forces have been successfully crushed.

Leaders of our country saw the need for implanting the State Ideology in the minds of the people, so a course in the Directives and Implementation of Pancasila is required.

Leaders of our country also feel the need for implementing the pearls of wisdom contained in the five principles of Pancasila, so the People’s Consultative Assembly decreed “Ketetapan MPR II, 1978,” officially known as P-4.

Pancasila should not only remain in Indonesian history books to be read only in a while and to be regarded as a thing of the past, for Pancasila is the most valuable possession of the state. The P-4 course was first given to government officials from the lowest to the highest echelon, but now it is given also to the society at large.

Pancasila should pervade all aspect of life in Indonesia, so the country is governed and led by honest and ethical officials.

The P-4 course is comprised of lectures and discussions on the history of Indonesia. Pancasila, The 1945 Constitution, The Guidelines of The States Policy, and The Five-Year

Development Plan, and it also contains lectures on the interrelation of these Five subject with regard to national development, equity, prosperity, and national stability.

The Legal Aid Institution

The Legal Aid Institution’s mission is helping the poor regardless of their religion, opinion or political ideology. This legal body consists of young, promising, lawyers ready to assist those poor people needing to defend their own basic rights. Sometimes this body also has to undertake political and subversion cases. In doing so, the young lawyers are considered acting against the authorities. However, they have to stick to their basic principal-giving assistance to people who are oppressed and in need of legal aid. The following is an illustration of how the institution has helped the oppressed. Miss Sri Mersing lost her money in a business venture. She was cheated by her business partner, who admitted having received her money. Because she was a very influential man, Miss Mersing could not do anything about it. Nevertheless, she did not give up hope. She went to the Legal Aid Body for legal assistance. Through the advice of the lawyers in the institution, Miss Mersing was able to take her ex-business partner to court.

Adat and Customary Law

The term ‘Adat’ has long been accepted by Indonesians and has become familiar to Dutch jurist and ethnologists. It is still somewhat strange to the Anglo-American reader. The translators of this work have given serious consideration to the choice of an

English language equivalent; but no fitting English term was found. Translation of the term with ‘Customary law’ is not only clumsy but implies a different in kind from the law of civilized peoples – a distinction which is not justified in fact. Indonesians have for many centuries lived under the humanitarian impress of Hinduism and Islam; so, their law is part of a civilized heritage. ‘Native law’ would be adequate translation to d